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Pathway through the heart of paradoxical cerebral arterial air emboli

Pathway of air emboli paradoxically traveling from the right atrium across an intracardiac shunt (eg, patent foramen ovale) into the left atrium and subsequently into the left ventricle and aorta before entering the carotid and then intracranial arteries. (Source: Santucci J, Mullaguri N, Battineni A, Guddeti RR, Newey CR. Paradoxical and retrograde air embolism from pressurized peripheral bolus. Case Rep Neurol Med 2021;2021:1063264. Copyright 2020 Cleveland Clinic Foundation. Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License [CC BY 4.0],