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Blue arrows denote spread of aberrant epileptic discharges. (Used with permission from Penfield/Rasmussen, The Cerebral Cortex of Man, 1950.)
Neuropharmacology & Neurotherapeutics
Sep. 16, 2021
Tetanus is characterized by sustained muscle rigidity and reflex spasm, and sometimes autonomic instability (mostly hypersympathetic state) in severe cases. Early manifestations include rigidity of the masseter muscles (lockjaw) and facial muscles, with straightening of the upper lip (grimace). It is caused by the neurotoxin tetanospasmin, produced by Clostridium tetani, which interferes with the release of inhibitory neurotransmitter causing excessive excitation of spinal and bulbar motor neurons.
Aug. 07, 2021
Risks to the nervous system from radiation therapy include radiation necrosis, cerebrovascular disease, cognitive deficits, endocrinopathies, encephalopathy, myelopathy, plexopathy, radiculopathy, neuropathy, and secondary tumors. Late complications of radiation therapy are generally progressive and may be permanent.
Aug. 06, 2021
Epilepsy & Seizures
Benign familial neonatal seizures is a syndrome characterized by focal clonic seizures, occasionally with a generalized tonic-clonic component, that occurs in full-term neonates. The seizures usually begin within 2 to 8 days of birth and remit by 16 months. The syndrome is caused by mutations in the gene encoding voltage-gated K+ channels and is usually familial and self-limited.
Aug. 12, 2021
Childhood Degenerative & Metabolic Disorders
Feb. 21, 2021
Oct. 21, 2020
Although brain metastases are thought to be at least 5 times as common as primary brain tumors-affecting about 200,000 people each year in the
Oct. 23, 2018