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Hypertensive retinopathy

This patient has a history of acute hypertension of rapid onset and renal failure secondary to glomerulonephritis. He has been on kidney dialysis twice a week for 4 months. The macular star and cotton-wool spots seen in this fundus are seen in acute hypertension. In chronic hypertension, the eye signs are much more subtle and take many years to develop. (Contributed by Dr. Rosa A Tang.)

Associated Disorders

  • Bassen-Kornzweig disease
  • Cushing syndrome
  • Kearns-Sayre syndrome
  • Lawrence-Moon-Biedl syndrome
  • Mitochondrial encephalopathy with lactic acidosis and stroke-like episodes (MELAS)
  • Ocular paraneoplastic syndromes
  • Refsum disease
  • Usher syndrome
  • gastroesophageal reflux disease
  • posterior vitreous detachment
  • retinal detachment
  • systemic arterial hypertension
  • systemic lupus erythematosus