Sign Up for a Free Account

This is an image preview.
Start a Free Account
to view the full image.

  • Nearly 3,000 illustrations, including video clips of neurologic disorders.

  • Every article is reviewed by our esteemed Editorial Board for accuracy and currency.

  • Full spectrum of neurology in 1,200 comprehensive articles.

Severe nonproliferative diabetic retinopathy

This patient is at high risk for developing proliferative retinopathy. He has cotton-wool spots at 6 and 9 o’clock positions. Microaneurysms are in all 4 quadrants, and clinically significant macular edema is indicated by the circinate ring of lipid, which is larger than a disc diameter across and closer than a disc diameter to the fovea. (Contributed by Dr. Rosa Tang.)

Associated Disorders

  • Bassen-Kornzweig disease
  • Cushing syndrome
  • Kearns-Sayre syndrome
  • Lawrence-Moon-Biedl syndrome
  • Mitochondrial encephalopathy with lactic acidosis and stroke-like episodes (MELAS)
  • Ocular paraneoplastic syndromes
  • Refsum disease
  • Usher syndrome
  • gastroesophageal reflux disease
  • posterior vitreous detachment
  • retinal detachment
  • systemic arterial hypertension
  • systemic lupus erythematosus