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(Courtesy of A A Vein, Department of Neurology, Leiden University Medical Centre, The Netherlands.)
Neuropharmacology & Neurotherapeutics
Oct. 04, 2021
Neuro-Ophthalmology & Neuro-Otology
Cortical blindness refers to visual loss due to bilateral lesions of the geniculocalcarine pathways in the brain. Patients may or may not be aware of their visual deficits, and if unaware, the clinical presentation is termed “Anton syndrome.” It can be caused by a variety of disorders, including vascular, infectious, metabolic, or other etiologies.
Jun. 06, 2018
Neurogenetics is a growing field that encompasses heritable disorders in all the subspecialties of neurology. Deciding on the genetic tests to order can be simplified by narrowing the differential diagnosis and defining the patient’s phenotype. Next-generation sequencing of the whole exome is useful for testing for multiple candidate genes simultaneously or for discovering new, rare disorders.
Oct. 07, 2019
Behavioral & Cognitive Disorders
PANDAS is characterized by acute onset of obsessive-compulsive symptoms, tics, behavioral and motor regression, following streptococcal infection. Immune-mediated autoaggressive attack on basal ganglia antigens is believed to be involved.
Dec. 01, 2020
Hypertensive encephalopathy is a syndrome in which altered mental status, headache, vision changes, and/or seizures accompany elevated blood pressure. Failure of cerebral autoregulation from a sudden elevation of blood pressure results in endothelial injury and vasogenic edema. Early recognition and correction of hypertension often results in reversal of the encephalopathy; without prompt treatment, permanently damaging ischemia or hemorrhage may result.
Nov. 05, 2021
Epilepsy & Seizures
Startle epilepsy is characterized by seizures precipitated by sudden, unexpected stimuli, usually sound or touch. Startle-induced seizures mainly consist of axial tonic posturing, frequently causing falls, which can often be traumatic. Typically it affects children with severe neurologic deficits, brain anoxia, infantile hemiparesis, and Down syndrome. The prognosis is often poor, particularly for those with severe preexisting encephalopathies
Feb. 10, 2020
Presbyosmia, the age-related loss of smell, is common in the elderly and results from normal aging, certain diseases (especially Parkinson disease and dementia with Lewy bodies), medications, surgical interventions, and prior environmental exposures. Clinically significant olfactory loss is frequently unrecognized. Impaired olfaction adversely affects quality of life, psychological and physical health, and the enjoyment of eating and may pose a safety risk.
Sep. 10, 2021
The thoracic outlet syndromes include true neurogenic, disputed, arterial, venous, and traumatic neurovascular subtypes, which all feature the compression of neurovascular structures in the thoracic outlet. The true neurogenic variety is extremely rare, and is characterized by sensory symptoms over the medial hand or forearm and intrinsic hand muscle weakness and atrophy.
Sep. 13, 2021