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(Courtesy of A A Vein, Department of Neurology, Leiden University Medical Centre, The Netherlands.)
Epilepsy & Seizures
Jan. 18, 2021
Childhood Degenerative & Metabolic Disorders
Slowly progressive ophthalmological changes beginning in childhood and leading to blindness in the fifth decade are the characteristics of gyrate atrophy
Aug. 13, 2020
Metabolic encephalopathy involves global cerebral dysfunction, with presentations ranging from mild executive dysfunction to deep coma. Delirium is often the initial phase of impairment of consciousness, with impairment of attention, fluctuations in alertness, clouding of consciousness, disturbances in the wake-sleep cycle, and sometimes agitation and restlessness. Selective attention and the ability to process information are the cognitive domains primarily affected.
Jan. 31, 2021
Carcinomas of the lung or breast are the most common sources of brachial plexus metastases, whereas lumbosacral plexus metastases most often arise from primary pelvic tumors or lymphoma. Local and radiating pain is the most common presenting symptom of nerve plexus metastasis, eventually followed by motor and sensory deficits. MRI is fairly sensitive and specific in diagnosing nerve plexus metastases.
Jul. 06, 2021
Behavioral disturbances occur in a majority of patients with neurologic disease and are substantial factors determining quality of life for such patients. Behavioral disturbances due to primary neurologic conditions can be distinguished from idiopathic psychiatric disease by applying principles of brain-behavior relationships. Recognizing behavioral disturbances that represent distinct neuropsychiatric syndromes informs diagnostic and treatment considerations.
May. 26, 2021
Focal cortical dysplasias are cytoarchitectural abnormalities most likely representing malformations of cortical development. Ranging from known genetic abnormalities to spontaneous mutations, these abnormalities most frequently present with intractable epilepsy. Prognosis depends on the extent of the cortical dysplasia, its location, and whether it is focal, multifocal, or diffuse (especially bihemispheric).
Jun. 14, 2021
Seizure is defined as "a transient occurrence of signs and/or symptoms due to abnormal excessive or synchronous neuronal activity in the brain." First seizure (single or multiple events within 24 hours) represents a frequent presentation of new-onset seizures, accounting for up to a third of such presentations. However, the majority of these patients will not go on to have recurrent seizures, ie, epilepsy.
May. 25, 2020
Neuro-Ophthalmology & Neuro-Otology
Nystagmus refers to rhythmic involuntary oscillations of one or both eyes. Visual loss or ophthalmoparesis may be present. It may be physiologic or pathologic, and congenital or acquired.
Feb. 13, 2020