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Direct fistula before and after treatment

Lateral view of the direct fistula before treatment (left). Coils can be seen in the superior ophthalmic vein and in the cavernous sinus (arrow). After treatment (right), there is filling in the middle cerebral artery territory, which could not be visualized prior to treatment. (Courtesy of Dr. Kim Rickert.)

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Associated Disorders

  • Arterial hypertension
  • Atherosclerosis
  • Cerebral aneurysm
  • Ehlers Danlos syndrome
  • Fibromuscular dysplasia
  • Glaucoma
  • Intracerebral hemorrhage
  • Osteogenesis imperfecta
  • Pseudoxanthoma elasticum
  • Stroke
  • Trauma
  • Vision loss