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Anterior-posterior projection left. Lateral projection right. Early filling of the veins can be seen before any of the distal vascular is opacified. (Courtesy of Dr. Kim Rickert.)
Headache & Pain
Apr. 18, 2021
Neuropharmacology & Neurotherapeutics
Sep. 06, 2020
Extrapyramidal side effects are seen with all first-generation, and most second-generation, antipsychotic drugs. Acute akathisia and acute dystonic reactions are usually the first extrapyramidal side effects to develop, primarily shortly after initiation of an antipsychotic or a dose increase, and generally before parkinsonism develops. Acute dystonic reactions consistently resolve when the offending drug is stopped, but akathisia has a more complex prognosis.
Jun. 26, 2021
Acquired hepatocerebral degeneration is characterized by extrapyramidal signs, ataxia, and cognitive decline. It is a progressive neurologic disorder that occurs in patients with chronic liver disease. Specific pathogenesis is not known, but diversion of portal blood into the systemic circulation appears to underlie the syndrome.
Nov. 20, 2020
Epilepsy & Seizures
Feb. 16, 2020
Childhood Degenerative & Metabolic Disorders
Aug. 13, 2021
Stroke & Vascular Disorders
Acute pituitary apoplexy typically begins with sudden severe headache, followed by nausea, vomiting, visual disturbance, and neurologic symptoms including meningeal irritation, fever, clouding of consciousness, or coma. Pattern of tumor growth, size of the tumor, and amount of hemorrhage and edema in the gland all determine initial presenting symptoms.
Oct. 21, 2020
Excessive alcohol use may lead to withdrawal seizures, delirium tremens (DTs), Wernicke-Korsakoff syndrome, hepatic encephalopathy, peripheral neuropathy, cerebellar degeneration, and other complications. Excitotoxicity, free radical formation, and neuroinflammatory damage may underlie the neurodegenerative aspects of alcohol toxicity.
Jan. 23, 2021