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Direct carotid-cavernous fistula, type A

Anterior-posterior projection left. Lateral projection right. Early filling of the veins can be seen before any of the distal vascular is opacified. (Courtesy of Dr. Kim Rickert.)

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Associated Disorders

  • Arterial hypertension
  • Atherosclerosis
  • Cerebral aneurysm
  • Ehlers Danlos syndrome
  • Fibromuscular dysplasia
  • Glaucoma
  • Intracerebral hemorrhage
  • Osteogenesis imperfecta
  • Pseudoxanthoma elasticum
  • Stroke
  • Trauma
  • Vision loss