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Direct carotid-cavernous sinus fistula

External photograph of a post-trauma patient with a “direct” (type A) carotid-cavernous sinus fistula. Note the dramatic proptosis and chemosis as well as conjunctival injection. (Photo courtesy of Dr. Steven E Feldon.)

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Associated Disorders

  • Arterial hypertension
  • Atherosclerosis
  • Cerebral aneurysm
  • Ehlers Danlos syndrome
  • Fibromuscular dysplasia
  • Glaucoma
  • Intracerebral hemorrhage
  • Osteogenesis imperfecta
  • Pseudoxanthoma elasticum
  • Stroke
  • Trauma
  • Vision loss