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Carotid-cavernous fistula, type D: digital angiography of the external and internal carotid artery

(Left) Anterior-posterior view of an external carotid injection. The branches of the external carotid can be seen filling the cavernous sinus. (Right) Lateral view of a left internal carotid injection in the same patient, also showing filling of the cavernous sinus. (Courtesy of Dr. Kim Rickert.)

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Associated Disorders

  • Arterial hypertension
  • Atherosclerosis
  • Cerebral aneurysm
  • Ehlers Danlos syndrome
  • Fibromuscular dysplasia
  • Glaucoma
  • Intracerebral hemorrhage
  • Osteogenesis imperfecta
  • Pseudoxanthoma elasticum
  • Stroke
  • Trauma
  • Vision loss