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T1 hyperintense focus in the parasagittal anterior left frontal lobe that measures 2.1 x 2.9 cm ). (Contributed by Dr. Daniel Guillaume.)
Epilepsy & Seizures
Feb. 18, 2021
Behavioral & Cognitive Disorders
Apraxia refers to the inability to produce skilled movements as the result of brain damage, and does not affect unlearned, basic movements. Limb kinetic apraxia, ideokinetic or ideomotor, and ideational apraxia are the major subtypes. The most frequent etiology for apraxia is stroke, but it can also be observed in diseases including brain tumors, head injury, corticobasal syndrome, Alzheimer disease, progressive supranuclear palsy, and other degenerative illnesses.
Jul. 22, 2021
Automatic-voluntary dissociation refers to the differential completion of an action depending on the patient’s attention to the task, whether performed attentively (“voluntarily”) or inattentively (“automatically”), and is not specific to a form of neuropathology or lesion localization. Dissociation can occur in either direction, with some illnesses resulting in preserved “automatic” acting but impaired “voluntary” acting, and others having the opposite pattern.
Aug. 15, 2021
General Child Neurology
The autosomal dominant hereditary ataxia syndromes consist of more than 40 known spinocerebellar ataxia syndromes, dentatorubral-pallidoluysian atrophy, and 8 episodic ataxia syndromes. They have a range of phenotypes that can be categorized as ataxia plus nonataxia symptoms, ataxia with vision loss, and almost purely isolated cerebellar ataxia. Their cardinal clinical feature is progressive incoordination of movement, either in the presence or absence of other neurologic signs.
Apr. 05, 2021
Oct. 21, 2020
Cryptococcal meningitis is the most common fungal meningitis and is commonly observed in AIDS. Other immunosuppressive conditions also predispose to its development, such as corticosteroid administration; however, it may also be seen in immunologically normal persons. Headache is the most common of symptoms but it is not universally present, and papilledema occurs in less than one third of persons. On occasion, cryptococcal infection of the CNS presents as mass lesion in the brain.
Nov. 08, 2020
Tardive dystonia occurs after exposure to dopaminergic blocking agents, usually after long-term exposure, and may not improve despite discontinuation of the offending agent. Dopamine-blocking agents associated with tardive dystonia are most frequently antipsychotic medications but also include antiemetics, such as metoclopramide. The effects of tardive dystonia are often disabling and compromise quality of life due to abnormal movements and the pain produced by these.
May. 05, 2019
Corticobasal degeneration (CBGD) is one of the atypical parkinsonian syndromes or Parkinsonism-plus syndromes that can mimic Parkinson disease, but it is distinct because of the added features of apraxia, dysphasia, cortical sensory signs, unusual dystonic postures, involuntary movements such as myoclonus, and “alien limb” sign. The pathological hallmark is the deposition of abnormally hyper-phosphorylated microtubule associated protein tau in various parts of the brain. CBGD inevitably progresses slowly and is invariably fatal.
Jan. 31, 2021