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Sex-specific age-standardized rates of intentional carbon monoxide poisoning in England from 2002 to 2016 by sex and Carstairs deprivation quintile in 2011

Rates per 100,000 inhabitants and age-standardized to the 2013 European Standard Population. Error bars show the 95% confidence intervals. The Carstairs Index is a composite measure of unemployment, household overcrowding, car ownership, and social class. Carstairs scores (a score of 1 corresponding to the least deprived area) were standardized at local geographic levels and categorized into quintiles for the analysis. The local geographic levels were based on British census groupings and comprised between 2000 and 6000 households, with a resident population between 5000 and 15,000 persons. (Sources: Carstairs V, Morris R. Deprivation and mortality: an alternative to social class? Community Med 1989;11[3]:210-19. Roca-Barcelo A, Crabbe H, Close R, Fahie H, Leonardi GS, Piel FB. Spatial and temporal trends and risk factors for intentional carbon monoxide poisoning hospitalizations in England between 2002 and 2016. J Affect Disord 2023;329:168-75. Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International [CC BY 4.0] license,

Associated Disorders

  • Anoxic leukoencephalopathy
  • Carbon monoxide-induced parkinsonism
  • Delayed carbon monoxide encephalopathy
  • Late sequelae of carbon monoxide poisoning
  • Warehouse workers headache