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The femoral nerve and its terminal motor and sensory branches including the saphenous nerve. (Used with permission, Haymaker W, Woodhall B. Peripheral nerve injuries: principles of diagnosis. Philadelphia: W.B. Saunders, 1953.)
Epilepsy & Seizures
Nov. 29, 2020
Stroke & Vascular Disorders
Vascular syndromes of the spinal cord are grouped into spinal cord infarction or transient ischemia syndromes, spinal cord hemorrhagic syndromes, and spinal vascular malformations. Pain is a disabling long-term complication in many patients, independent of motor function recovery. Complications include urinary tract infections or sepsis; pressure sores; autonomic dysreflexia; urinary, bowel, and sexual dysfunction; renal dysfunction; chronic pain; deep venous thrombosis or pulmonary embolism; respiratory dysfunction; and psychological or psychiatric manifestations.
Aug. 25, 2020
Behavioral & Cognitive Disorders
Vascular cognitive impairment refers to a continuum of cognitive disorders ranging from mild vascular cognitive impairment to vascular dementia. Besides memory loss, those with vascular cognitive impairment may have other cognitive symptoms such as problems with executive function, attention and concentration, visual-spatial abilities, as well as slowing of motor processing speed. The following factors increase the risk of vascular dementia: age, lack of physical activity, obesity, midlife hypertension, diabetes, atrial fibrillation, and stroke.
Dec. 08, 2020
Sleep-related rhythmic movement disorder consists of repetitive, stereotyped, and rhythmic motor behaviors (not tremor) that involve large muscle groups, such as head banging and rocking or rolling of the head or body, with a rate of 0.5 to 2 per second. Sleep-related movements usually occur in infants and young children, but can also be found in adults, and the prevalence decreases with increasing age.
Mar. 29, 2021
Multiple sclerosis (MS) lesions in the brain and spinal cord damage every function of the central nervous system. Clinical symptoms vary from mild to aggressive; the course can be relapsing-remitting or progressive, and the symptoms and course evolve over time. Protean symptoms include fatigue and disturbed sensory, motor, bladder, bowel, sexual, cerebellar, brainstem, optic nerve, and cognitive realms.
Sep. 26, 2017
Headache & Pain
Medication overuse headache is a chronic headache that occurs in people with a preexisting primary headache, such as migraine or tension-type headache, following overuse of any kind of acute headache medications. Triptans, opioids, and combination analgesics are most commonly associated with medication overuse headache. In general, treatment requires a multidisciplinary setting and includes education of patients, discontinuation of the overused medication, and initiation of preventive treatment.
General Child Neurology
Dec. 15, 2020
Motor and multifocal motor neuropathy is characterized by weakness with muscle wasting and fasciculations, and may resemble motor neuron disease. Sensory symptoms are notably absent, with only the occasional complaint of paresthesias. Motor weakness typically occurs in the distribution of individual motor nerves rather than the segmental distribution seen in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. Compared with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, motor neuropathies have a favorable prognosis and a prolonged course.
Oct. 24, 2020