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Metastatic carcinoma in the ventral portion of the dorsal horn of the spinal cord. (Hematoxylin-eosin; x7.4) (Contributed by Dr. Marc D Winkelman.)
Jan. 17, 2021
Symptoms of lumbar disc disease include low back pain in association with disc narrowing, pain in the buttocks or hips, radicular pain in the legs, leg weakness or numbness, sciatica caused by disc herniation, or a cauda equina syndrome. Onset is usually spontaneous, but can be associated with heavy lifting, trauma, running, coughing, or sneezing.
Mar. 14, 2021
Patients with new spinal cord injuries have unique challenges that are best addressed in an inpatient rehabilitation setting. The patient’s functional goals should be based on their level of injury. There are multiple medical issues the physician should evaluate and patients should familiarize themselves with, including pain, spasticity, neurogenic bowel or bladder, pressure injuries, autonomic dysreflexia, and pulmonary compromise.
Jun. 14, 2021
Trichinosis is an infectious disease caused by consumption of raw meat contaminated with larvae of nematode in the genus Trichinella. The clinical syndrome of Trichinella infection is caused by larvae migration and invasion of target tissues, primarily muscles, causing muscle pain and swelling. Systemic symptoms include headache, maculopapular rash, focal edema, local inflammation, leukocytosis, and eosinophilia.
Aug. 07, 2021
Insomnia appears in several forms: (1) difficulty initiating sleep, (2) repeated or lengthy awakenings, (3) early awakenings, (4) inadequate total sleep time, or (5) poor quality of sleep as reflected by its consequences, including daytime sleepiness. The ICSD-3 defines 3 different classification systems for insomnia: chronic insomnia disorder, short-term insomnia disorder, and other insomnia disorder. Complications of insomnia include impaired responses to infections, increase in inflammation, higher levels of the stress hormone cortisol, and other biomarkers related to fatigue and poor health.
Oct. 11, 2020
The most common symptoms of viral meningitis are acute onset of fever, headache, neck stiffness, and photophobia. Cerebrospinal fluid analysis is needed to differentiate from bacterial meningitis. Onset is sudden and symptoms tend to be self-limiting, with most cases caused by enteroviruses.
Mar. 31, 2021
Akathisia is the abnormal state of excessive restlessness. It fundamentally has 2 components: (1) a sensory component, which includes a sensation of inner restlessness, an urge to move, and dysphoria and (2) a motor component, manifested as movements that result from the sensation. Akathisia is a complication of all atypical antipsychotics.
May. 28, 2021
Idiopathic basal ganglia calcification clinically presents as movement disorders such as parkinsonism, ataxia, chorea, tremor, dystonia, athetosis, or orofacial dyskinesia. Psychiatric symptoms, cognitive impairment, and ataxia are also common symptoms. It is an inherited neuropsychiatric disorder.
Jan. 04, 2021