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Summary findings on obstructive sleep apnea

(A) Summary of findings from fMRI studies in obstructive sleep apnea. During tasks, activation is reduced in the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex, anterior cingulate cortex, middle frontal gyrus, inferior frontal gyrus, cingulate and parietal regions, bilateral parahippocampal regions, right insula, bilateral claustrum, left precentral gyrus, and right precuneus, depending on the cognitive domain involved. Activation is increased in the right anterior prefrontal gyrus, bilateral inferior and middle frontal gyri, cingulate gyrus, junction of the inferior parietal and superior temporal lobes, thalamus, cerebellum, parietal cortex, medial precuneus, hippocampus, and left temporo-occipital area. (B) Summary of findings from PET and SPECT studies in obstructive sleep apnea. During sleep, reduced regional perfusion is present in the left parietal region, bilateral parahippocampal gyri, left lingual gyrus, precuneus, middle and posterior cingulate gyrus, parieto-occipital cortex, and prefrontal cortex. Hyperperfusion is present in the frontal cortex during sleep. (Contributed by Dr. Nathan Cross and Dr. Florence Pomares.)

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