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Computed tomography shows a large hematoma in the pons. (Contributed by Dr. Ravindra Kumar Garg.)
May. 30, 2021
General Child Neurology
Infant botulism is a serious bacterial infection that results from ingestion of Clostridium botulinum spores that colonize the intestinal tract, releasing botulinum toxin and resulting in progressive neuromuscular weakness. It presents with a progression of symptoms: constipation, cranial nerve palsies, flaccid descending paralysis, and possible respiratory failure. Treatment includes urgent administration of botulism immune globulin (BabyBIG®) as well as supportive care.
May. 31, 2021
Stroke & Vascular Disorders
Amaurosis fugax consists of transient monocular or binocular visual loss due to retinal artery ischemia, classically experienced as painless and resembling a curtain or shade descending over the eye, or a blur, cloud, or fog over the vision. If triggered by bright light, it can suggest severe carotid stenosis. It may be caused by a multitude of pathologic processes, some of which may lead to stroke or blindness.
Mar. 04, 2021
Childhood Degenerative & Metabolic Disorders
Sep. 05, 2020
Headache & Pain
This article updates the results from the 7 evidence-based reviews on the management of patients with migraine and cluster headache: specifically, acute,
Apr. 06, 2021
GM2 gangliosidoses are caused by beta-hexosaminidase deficiency. There are 2 major phenotypes: Tay-Sachs disease, caused by beta-hexosaminidase A deficiency, and Sandhoff disease, caused by beta-hexosaminidase A and B deficiency. Carrier detection in risk populations is successful in prevention.
May. 25, 2019
Neuro-Ophthalmology & Neuro-Otology
Gait ataxia and oscillopsia are the key clinical features of bilateral vestibulopathy. The insidious symmetrical presentation is characterized by gradually progressive unsteadiness without episodes of vertigo, whereas the sequential unilateral mode of presentation is characterized by postural instability and severe vertigo with spontaneous nystagmus. Patients have an unsteady wide-based gait and a tendency to fall to either side, made worse on uneven or soft surfaces.
Oct. 21, 2020
Epilepsy & Seizures
Encephalopathy is characterized clinically by a generalized alteration of attention, consciousness, or cognition. Acute encephalopathies range from delirium to coma. Electroencephalography (EEG) plays a significant role in the evaluation of patients with acute encephalopathy. Most importantly, EEG can differentiate between a true acute encephalopathy and epileptic states or psychiatric conditions. The EEG hallmark of most acute encephalopathies is background slowing.
Sep. 04, 2021