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Childhood absence epilepsy in 7-year-old female (ictal EEG)

(a) Sleep EEG. During sleep, 3 generalized spike-and-wave discharges of 7.5, 6, and 4 seconds’ duration were recorded. During the 7.5-second 3 Hz generalized spike-and-wave discharge, (a) she slowly opened her eyes wide and had a vague look with concomitant upward tonic spasm of eyebrows for 1.5 seconds; then her eyebrows relaxed to the usual position. Immediately after the discharge, she became conscious for 1.5 seconds and slept again. In a similar discharge of 6 seconds, her eyes slowly opened to a stare, and then her eyes closed immediately after the discharge. During the third discharge (4 seconds), the eyes remained closed. (b) Awake EEG. Hyperventilation while standing: Concomitant with the 3 Hz generalized spike-and-wave discharge, she stopped overbreathing, had a vague look, was not responding, and became slightly unsteady with the body and head bend foreword. Two seconds before the end of the discharge, she scratched her neck with her left hand. Other similar typical absence seizures were recorded during hyperventilation. (Contributed by Dr. Athanasios Covanis.)

Associated Disorders

  • Absences with single myoclonic jerks during the absence ictus
  • Childhood absence epilepsy
  • Eyelid myoclonia and (with) absences (Jeavons syndrome)
  • Facial (perioral or eyebrow) myoclonia and absences
  • Generalized tonic-clonic seizures
  • Juvenile absence epilepsy
  • Juvenile myoclonic epilepsy
  • Myoclonic absence epilepsy
  • Phantom absences
  • Symptomatic and cryptogenic absences
  • Typical absences with specific modes of precipitation (reflex absences)