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Psycholinguistic model of auditory linguistic processing

Model of hypothesized processes that underly spoken language comprehension. Boxes and connecting arrows in blue depict linguistic processes, whereas boxes and arrows in gray show auditory processes. This model is a simplified modification of the model proposed by Whitworth in 2013 and is designed to also express interaction among processes (Dell et al 1997; Levelt et al 1999; Whitworth et al 2013). Components of this model were ultimately derived from German neurologist and psychiatrist Karl Kleist (1879-1960) (Kleist 1962), a student of German neurologist, psychiatrist, and neuropathologist Carl Wernicke (1848-1905). Kleist's work can be understood within the historical connectionist model of language processing (Wernicke 1874; Lichtheim 1885). To show this direct comparison, lettering in the top-right corner of the boxes corresponds to those used by German physician and pioneering aphasiologist Ludwig Lichtheim (1845-1928) in 1885, as does the color-coding of the boxes and connecting arrows described above (ie, those outlined in blue represent centers and pathways that result in select aphasia syndromes if damaged). (Source: Casilio M, Kasdan AV, Schneck SM, et al. Situating word deafness within aphasia recovery: a case report. Cortex 2024;173:96-119. Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International [CC BY 4.0] license,

References cited:
Dell GS, Schwartz MF, Martin N, Saffran EM, Gagnon DA. Lexical access in aphasic and nonaphasic speakers. Psychol Rev 1997;104[4]:801-38.
Kleist K. Sensory aphasia and amusia: the myeloarchitectonic basis. Oxford: Pergamon Press, 1962.
Levelt WJ, Roelofs A, Meyer AS. A theory of lexical access in speech production. Behav Brain Sci 1999;22[1]:1-38; discussion 38-75.
Lichtheim L. On aphasia. Brain 1885;7:433-84. Wernicke C. Der aphasische symptomencomplex. Breslau: Cohn and Weigert, 1874.
Whitworth A, Webster J, Howard D. A Cognitive Neuropsychological Approach To Assessment And Intervention In Aphasia: A Clinician's Guide. 2nd ed. Hove [England]: Psychology Press, 2013.

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