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Structure-function relationship showing areas of cerebral volume loss associated with mean childhood blood lead level for the Cincinnati Lead Study Participants

A composite representation of regions with significant volume loss for Cincinnati Lead Study Participants associated with blood lead concentration at age 78 months (6.5 years) and adjusted for sex is shown in red and yellow overlaid on a standard brain template with the posterior coronal view highlighted below. (Source: Cecil KM, Brubaker CJ, Adler CM, et al. Decreased brain volume in adults with childhood lead exposure. PLoS Med 2008;5[5]:e112. Creative Commons Attribution License,

Associated Disorders

  • Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder
  • Communication disorder
  • Developmental delay
  • Hyperactivity
  • Iron deficiency
  • Iron deficiency anemia
  • Language disorder
  • Learning disabilities
  • Mental retardation
  • Pica