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Absorption, distribution, and excretion of Pb from the body

Key: thin arrows=absorption pathways; bold arrows=excreting pathways; dashed arrows=movement inside the body. The main locations of Pb in the body (blood, bones, soft tissues).

(Source: Charkiewicz AE, Backstrand JR. Lead toxicity and pollution in Poland. Int J Environ Res Public Health 2020;17[12]:4385. Creative Commons Attribution [CC-BY] License,

Additional references:
Giel-Pietraszuk M, Hybza K, Chełchowska M, Barciszewski J. Mechanisms of lead toxicity. Adv Cell Biol 2012;39:17-248.
Omeljaniuk WJ, Socha K, Soroczynska J, et al. Cadmium and lead in women who miscarried. Clin Lab 2018;64(1):59-67.
Lee JW, Choi H, Hwang UK, et al. Toxic effects of lead exposure on bioaccumulation, oxidative stress, neurotoxicity, and immune responses in fish: a review. Environ Toxicol Pharmacol 2019;68:101-8.

Associated Disorders

  • Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder
  • Communication disorder
  • Developmental delay
  • Hyperactivity
  • Iron deficiency
  • Iron deficiency anemia
  • Language disorder
  • Learning disabilities
  • Mental retardation
  • Pica