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Housing characteristics of children with lead exposure, United Kingdom

(Top) Distribution of housing age; percentage of houses built before 1973 for the cases’ local area. Values represent for each case, the percentage of housing built before 1973, for the small area (Lower Super Output Area) where the case resides. Data from the Valuation Office Agency (VOA) (2014). (Bottom) Distribution of housing age for Lead Exposure in Children Surveillance System (LEICSS) cases (2014–2020) in England using Ordnance Survey data. (Source: Crabbe H, Verlander NQ, Iqbal N, et al. As safe as houses; the risk of childhood lead exposure from housing in England and implications for public health. BMC Public Health 2022;22[1]:2052. Photography by Rebecca Ingham, Advanced Health Protection Practitioner, Yorkshire and Humber Health Protection Team (HPT), UK Health Security Agency (UKHSA), 2021. Open Government Licence v3.0,

Associated Disorders

  • Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder
  • Communication disorder
  • Developmental delay
  • Hyperactivity
  • Iron deficiency
  • Iron deficiency anemia
  • Language disorder
  • Learning disabilities
  • Mental retardation
  • Pica