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Balloon cells in focal cortical dysplasia (photomicrograph)

Balloon cells are present in this resection specimen from a child with severe cortical dysplasia. These cells are identical to the cells seen in the tubers of patients with tuberous sclerosis complex. Note the abundant opalescent eosinophilic cytoplasm and eccentric nuclei. Also note an enlarged, irregularly shaped neuronal cell body (upper right-hand corner) with characteristic clumping of the Nissl substance in a perinuclear distribution. (Hematoxylin-eosin) (Contributed by Dr. Paul Mischel.)

Associated Disorders

  • Cerebral dysgenesis
  • Cortical dysplastic lesion
  • Dysembryoplastic neuroepithelial tumor
  • Dysplastic cortex
  • Epilepsy
  • Focal neuroblast migratory disorder
  • Ganglioglioma
  • Hemimegalencephaly
  • Microdysgenesis
  • Neuroglial hamartias