10393 San Diego Mission Rd, Suite 120
San Diego, CA 92108-2134
Toll Free (U.S. + Canada): 800-452-2400
US Number: +1-619-640-4660
Angiogram shows arterial blood entering the cavernous sinus and dilating the superior ophthalmic vein. (Contributed by Dr. Jason Barton.)
Childhood Degenerative & Metabolic Disorders
Aug. 13, 2021
Inadequate sleep hygiene entails the behaviors, practices, rituals, and habits that result in sleep onset or maintenance difficulties and unrefreshing
Jul. 13, 2021
Myasthenia gravis is an autoimmune disorder characterized by fluctuating weakness of voluntary muscles, with a propensity for involvement of ocular muscles. Drug-induced myasthenic syndromes are caused by numerous medications of various classes. Some medications, such as the classic example of D-penicillamine, may induce a disturbance of the immune system that results in the development of myasthenia gravis, whereas many other agents produce weakness by direct compromise of neuromuscular transmission.
Dec. 28, 2020
Neuro-Ophthalmology & Neuro-Otology
Antineutrophil cytoplasmic antibody (ANCA)-associated vasculitis is the current nomenclature for small-vessel vasculitides, including microscopic polyangiitis, granulomatosis with polyangiitis, and eosinophilic granulomatosis with polyangiitis. All affect small vessels and involve autoantibody formation against the antigens proteinase 3 and myeloperoxidase. The most commonly affected tissues are the upper and lower respiratory tract, kidneys, skin, and peripheral nerves. Acute exacerbations may be accompanied by nonspecific inflammatory symptoms, such as arthralgia, fever, and myalgia.
Dec. 28, 2016
Thallium poisoning is still a source of toxic exposure. Dermatologic changes along with alopecia are key clues to the diagnosis of this painful neuropathy.
Mar. 31, 2021
Behavioral & Cognitive Disorders
Brain pathology is frequently associated with alexia, a disturbance in reading ability. Four types of alexia have been described: alexia without agraphia, alexia with agraphia, spatial alexia, and frontal alexia. Excepting spatial alexia, acquired reading disturbances are associated with left hemisphere pathology – usually strokes, tumors, or traumas. Rehabilitation is usually carried out simultaneously with aphasia rehabilitation.
Jan. 28, 2020
Patients treated with corticosteroids may develop myopathy months to years after initiation of therapy. The myopathy produced by chronic steroid excess is characterized by various degrees of painless, proximal weakness with legs more involved than arms. Muscle wasting and myalgias may be prominent in the extremities. Stopping the corticosteroid, lowering the dose, and switching to a nonfluorinated preparation are the mainstays of management.
Jul. 17, 2020
Mar. 29, 2020