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Typically, enlarged ventricles and severe periventricular hypodensities are present; also note small pneumocephalus on (A) after shunt placement. (Contributed by Dr. Peter Hedera.)
Neuropharmacology & Neurotherapeutics
Jun. 04, 2021
Most traumatic spinal cord injuries occur in association with impact to the vertebral column, resulting in direct compression or disruption of the spinal cord. Secondary injuries may ensue, resulting from ischemic and inflammatory processes, disrupted homeostasis, and apoptosis. The American Spinal Injury Association (ASIA) Impairment Scale is an international classification of spinal cord injury based on neurologic deficits, including motor function and sensation, as well as bowel and bladder control from the S4 and S5 segments.
Dec. 01, 2021
Jan. 09, 2021
Childhood Degenerative & Metabolic Disorders
Oct. 21, 2020
Sleep disturbance in multiple sclerosis is commonly multifactorial and may include difficulty initiating or maintaining sleep, frequent awakenings due to leg spasms, habitual snoring, occasional sleep apnea, and nocturia. Cases of symptomatic narcolepsy, REM sleep behavior disorder, and restless legs syndrome have also been described. MS is closely associated with fatigue and excessive daytime sleepiness.
Nov. 19, 2020
Seizures, cortical dysplasia, tumors, intellectual disability, autism, ADHD, and sleep disorders are all CNS manifestations of tuberous sclerosis complex, occuring in about 90% of patients. Cortical dysplasia is also common, manifesting as cortical tubers and lines of migration. It is an autosomal-dominant genetic disorder.
Aug. 24, 2021
Defecation and micturition syncopes are forms of the so-called situational syncopes, which occur immediately after precipitating situations, such as urination and defecation. There may be associated brief jerking or rhythmic movements, but there is no associated incontinence, tongue biting, or postictal state. Recovery usually occurs within seconds without vasomotor or other sequelae. Patients are amnestic for the period of lost consciousness.