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Meninges are hemorrhagic and opacified as a consequence of syphilitic meningitis. (Contributed by Dr. Joseph Berger.)
Jun. 01, 2020
Amyloid myopathy is one of the uncommon manifestations of systemic amyloidosis. The symptoms are usually nonspecific, typically including progressive proximal limb weakness with an increased creatine kinase level, macroglossia, and muscle pseudohypertrophy. It is often misdiagnosed as inflammatory myopathy, even when a muscle biopsy is available. When suspecting amyloid myopathy, Congo red staining and either an immunohistochemical assay or immunofluorescence study should be performed.
Oct. 16, 2020
Corticobasal degeneration (CBGD) is one of the atypical parkinsonian syndromes or Parkinsonism-plus syndromes that can mimic Parkinson disease, but it is distinct because of the added features of apraxia, dysphasia, cortical sensory signs, unusual dystonic postures, involuntary movements such as myoclonus, and “alien limb” sign. The pathological hallmark is the deposition of abnormally hyper-phosphorylated microtubule associated protein tau in various parts of the brain. CBGD inevitably progresses slowly and is invariably fatal.
Jan. 31, 2021
Behavioral & Cognitive Disorders
Subcortical vascular cognitive impairment can present with slowing of mental processing, executive dysfunction, or impairment in working memory. It arises on the basis of small vessel cerebrovascular disease, which causes lacunar infarcts and ischemic damage to the deep subcortical white matter. Hypertension and diabetes are important risk factors, although much of the risk is inherited. It is the most common form of vascular cognitive impairment.
Jul. 04, 2021
General Child Neurology
Pediatric presentation of Guillain-Barré syndrome differs from that of adults with predominant symptoms of gait ataxia or pain, and a higher incidence of cranial nerve abnormalities. Weakness of the respiratory muscles can be the most serious complication. Clinical manifestations in children are often anteceded within 2 to 4 weeks by recent illness or immunization.
Nov. 23, 2020
Polyneuropathy is a functional and/or structural disturbance of peripheral nerves causing motor, sensory, or autonomic symptoms or signs. Polyneuropathies that do not have an identifiable cause are considered idiopathic. Idiopathic polyneuropathies can be divided into 3 clinical categories: sensorimotor, pure sensory, and sensory neuronopathies. Neuropathic pain is a common presenting symptom and is often the focus of medical management.
Nov. 04, 2020
The brachial plexus is a network of nerves that control the shoulder, arm, and hand. A brachial plexus injury occurs when these nerves are stretched, compressed, or in the most serious cases, ripped apart or torn away from the spinal cord. Mechanism of injury, time since injury, type of injury (preganglionic or postganglionic), and associated injuries are all important factors to consider when determining a treatment option.
Jun. 14, 2021
Porphyrias present acutely in attacks, consisting of severe abdominal pain, nausea, constipation, confusion, and seizure, and can be life-threatening. Porphyric neuropathy is manifest by symptoms and cerebrospinal fluid abnormalities resembling acute Guillain-Barré syndrome. They are a group of genetic disorders caused by mutations in enzymes of the heme biosynthesis pathway.
Mar. 18, 2021