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Conversion of face presentation to vertex presentation

Direction of forces in the conversion of a face presentation to a vertex presentation. Large forces are operating on the head and neck to accomplish this conversion, placing fragile structures, such as the brachial plexus, at risk of being injured. (Source: Edgar JC. The practice of obstetrics: designed for the use of students and practitioners of medicine. Philadelphia: P Blakiston’s Son & Co., 1912:496 [after Ahlfeld]. Edited by Douglas Lanska. Public domain.)