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Shoulder dystocia causing obstructed labor

Downward pressure on the head is used to pull the baby’s anterior (right) shoulder along under the mother’s symphysis pubis. If the shoulders are too wide, the infant cannot pass below the symphysis pubis or requires significant manipulation or excessive force to pass below. The cause of obstructed labor in this case is called shoulder dystocia. (Source: Peterson R, editor. The practice of obstetrics in original contributions by American authors. Philadelphia and New York: Lea Brothers & Co., 1907. Edited by Douglas Lanska. Public domain.)