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Eukaryotic voltage-gated sodium channels and the outer pore blockers: general 3D model of sodium channels

Positions of toxin-interacting residues are shown by red circles. In eukaryotic voltage-gated sodium channels, the selectivity filter DEKA ring, which contains D, E, K, and A residues, borders the extracellularly exposed outer pore and the inner pore that is exposed to the cytoplasm in the open channel. Abbreviations: TTX (tetrodotoxin), STX (saxitoxin), and μ-CTX (μ-conotoxin). (Source: Tikhonov DB, Zhorov BS. Predicting structural details of the sodium channel pore basing on animal toxin studies. Front Pharmacol 2018;9:880. Creative Commons Attribution [CC BY] license.)