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Parathyroid glands in a patient with hyperparathyroidism caused by a parathyroid adenoma. (Source Bruce Blaum.)
Oct. 21, 2020
Epilepsy & Seizures
Aphasic seizures are a specific type of inhibitory seizure, thus, they do not cause positive symptoms but disrupt ongoing cognitive tasks involving language. Aphasic status epilepticus should be considered in patients with transient and sustained aphasia not better explained by acute acquired brain lesion (stroke). EEG and brain imaging can help differentiate an aphasic seizure from aphasia due to other causes.
Feb. 02, 2014
Behavioral & Cognitive Disorders
Cognitive-motor dissociation (CMD) describes a condition wherein patients thought to be in a vegetative or minimally conscious state are found to have covert consciousness, as detected by functional neuroimaging or electrophysiological studies. These methods may indicate consciousness through neural correlates, surrogates, or proxies in patients without behavioral evidence of consciousness owing to loss of appropriate motor function.
Oct. 11, 2020
Acute disseminated encephalomyelitis (ADEM) is an inflammatory demyelinating disorder predominantly affecting white and gray matter in the brain and spinal cord. Clinical presentation includes encephalopathy (which may manifest as behavioral change, profound irritability, or altered consciousness) that cannot be explained by fever and polyfocal neurologic deficits. Systemic symptoms such as fever, headache, and fatigue often precede the development of neurologic deficits.
May. 06, 2020
Sleep-related leg cramps are characterized by sudden painful contractions of the lower limb muscles during sleep, typically in the posterior compartment of the leg and foot, which awaken the patient and interrupt sleep. They can be either idiopathic or secondary to metabolic, vascular, or neurologic diseases or medications.
Jul. 22, 2021
Vasculitis rarely affects the CNS, as opposed to other organ systems and the peripheral nervous system, and the primary presentation of vasculitis as dementia is extremely rare. Dementia usually occurs late in the course of the disease and is preceded by a history of stroke attributable either to the vasculitis directly, to abnormal coagulation, or to cardiac embolism. Primary angiitis of the CNS, an isolated granulomatous angiitis of the nervous system, is the archetypical vasculitic cause of dementia and the most difficult to diagnose because of its lack of associated extracranial abnormalities.
Sep. 28, 2021
Staphylococcus is the leading cause of bacterial meningitis in patients with CSF shunts or following neurosurgical procedures or neurologic trauma. Additionally,
May. 18, 2021
May. 07, 2020