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Postulated model of the regulation of the cellular mechanisms associated with lead poisoning and iron deficiency

Abbreviation: DMT1, divalent metal transporter 1. (Source: *Slota M, Wasik M, Stoltny T, Machon-Grecka A, Kasperczyk S. Effects of environmental and occupational lead toxicity and its association with iron metabolism. Toxicol Appl Pharmacol 2022;434:115794. Creative Commons Attribution [CC BY] License, Figure modified by Dr. Douglas J Lanska.)

*Slota's work based on:
Kwong WT, Friello P, Semba RD. Interactions between iron deficiency and lead poisoning: epidemiology and pathogenesis. Sci Total Environ 2004;330[1-3]:21-37.
Strathmann FG, Blum LM. Toxic elements. In: Rafai N, Horwath AR, Wittwer CT, editors. Tietz Textbook of Clinical Chemistry and Molecular Diagnostics. 6th ed. Amsterdam: Elsevier. St. Louis, Missouri: 2018:907-10.
Camaschella C. Iron-deficiency anemia. N Engl J Med 2015;372(19):1832-43.

Associated Disorders

  • Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder
  • Communication disorder
  • Developmental delay
  • Hyperactivity
  • Iron deficiency
  • Iron deficiency anemia
  • Language disorder
  • Learning disabilities
  • Mental retardation
  • Pica