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Vitamin D3 binding sites and signaling pathways

1,25(OH)2D3--active form of vitamin D3; CAMK2g--g subunit of calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase 2; CAV-1--caveolin-1; L-VGCC--L-type voltage-gated calcium channel; MAPK--mitogen-activated protein kinase; PDIA3--protein disulfide isomerase family A member 3; PI3-K--phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase; PKA--protein kinase A; PKC--protein kinase C; PLA2--phospholipase A2; PLC--phospholipase C; RXR--retinoid X receptors; SSH--sonic hedgehog; Wnt5a--ligand activating beta-catenin- independent pendent pathways; VDR--vitamin D receptor; VDRE--vitamin D response element. (Source: Lasoń W, Jantas D, Leśkiewicz M, Regulska M, Basta-Kaim A. The vitamin D receptor as a potential target for the treatment of age-related neurodegenerative diseases such as Alzheimer's and Parkinson's diseases: a narrative review. Cells 2023;12[4]:660. Creative Commons Attribution [CC BY] license,