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Cyst walls of arachnoid cysts are made of meningothelial cells on a fibrovascular stroma. (Contributed by Dr. Jason A Heth.)
Jan. 17, 2021
Epilepsy & Seizures
In this update, the author summarizes advances in the understanding of genetic underpinnings of focal epilepsy due to DEPDC5 mutations, with evidence
Apr. 03, 2021
May. 21, 2021
Weakness in distal myopathies may start in the hands (Welander myopathy), the posterior compartment of the lower legs (Miyoshi and Miyoshi-like myopathies), or the anterior compartment of the legs (most distal myopathies) with resultant foot drop, depending on the underlying genetic abnormality. Involvement of the proximal, bulbar, and respiratory muscles may occur as the disease progresses. Distal myopathies represent 10% of all muscular dystrophies.
Neuro-Ophthalmology & Neuro-Otology
Third nerve palsy produces some combination of ipsilateral ptosis, mydriasis, and ophthalmoplegia. For purposes of evaluation, third nerve palsies should be divided into those that are not accompanied by other pertinent neurologic manifestations (“isolated palsies”) and those are accompanied by other pertinent manifestations (“nonisolated palsies”).
Mar. 24, 2021
Hemifacial spasm is a peripherally induced movement disorder characterized by repetitive clonic or more sustained spasms that synchronously affect muscles innervated by the facial nerve. Compression of the facial nerve at its junction with the brainstem, by vascular or other structures, appears to cause secondary hyperexcitability of the facial nucleus that seems to underlie most cases of hemifacial spasm.
Apr. 26, 2020
Apr. 09, 2021
Autoreactive antibodies against central or peripheral nervous system antigens may be useful for the diagnosis of several neurologic diseases. In paraneoplastic neurologic disorders, their detection can also help identify an associated cancer at a stage before it is clinically overt, potentially leading to early successful therapy. The sensitivity and specificity and the reliability of the commercially used techniques is important to evaluate in order to avoid useless tests.
Jan. 30, 2017