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Prevalence of neural tube defects (anencephaly and spina bifida) before and after mandatory folic acid fortification

Prevalence by maternal race and ethnicity: 19 population-based birth defect surveillance programs, United States, 1995-2011. Contributing programs were based in Arkansas, Arizona, California, Colorado, Georgia, Illinois, Iowa, Kentucky, Maryland, New Jersey, New York, North Carolina, Oklahoma, Puerto Rico, South Carolina, Texas, Utah, West Virginia, and Wisconsin.

Legend: † 95% confidence interval. (Source: Williams J, Mai CT, Mulinare J, et al. Updated estimates of neural tube defects prevented by mandatory folic Acid fortification - United States, 1995-2011. MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep 2015;64(1):1-5.) (Public domain.)