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German-born British physician and biochemist Johann Ludwig Wilhelm Thudichum (aka, John Louis William Thudichum) (1829-1901)

Thudichum isolated and characterized numerous compounds of the brain, such as cephalin, sphingomyelin, galactose, lactic acid, and sphingosine. In 1884, he explained his findings in a publication titled "A Treatise on the Chemical Constitution of the Brain," a book that was widely criticized in the scientific community (Thudichum 1884). After his death, Thudichum's discoveries were realized to be important scientific contributions to the study of the chemical and molecular composition of the brain.

Reference: Thudichum JL. A Treatise on the Chemical Constitution of the Brain: Based Throughout upon Original Researches. London : Bailliere, Tindall, and Cox, 1884.

(Source: Courtesy of the US National Library of Medicine. Public domain.)