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Time course of peripheral oxygen saturation (SpO2; blue) and pulse (grey) in a patient with HAPE at 4870 m (15,978 ft)

The black line indicates the start of supplemental oxygen at an initial flow rate of 3.0 L/min which was reduced to 0.5-1.0 L/min after several minutes. The grey dotted lines show the attempt of pursed lips breathing that had to be stopped after 12 minutes because of exhaustion. Drugs: administration of dexamethasone 8 mg, nifedipine 20 mg, and ibuprofen 800 mg. After 40 minutes, the patient walked to the helicopter (increasing pulse) using supplemental oxygen. (Source: Tannheimer M, Lechner R. Initial treatment of high-altitude pulmonary edema: comparison of oxygen and auto-PEEP. Int J Environ Res Public Health 2022;19[23]:16185. Creative Commons Attribution [CC BY 4.0] license,