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Acute mountain sickness on exposure to high-altitude hypoxia can sometimes evolve to either high-altitude pulmonary edema or high-altitude cerebral edema

After recovery or if there is no altitude illness, the evolution towards an increase of hemoglobin, hematocrit, and red blood cells and the formation of more capillaries makes high-altitude residents resistant to several diseases and can even lead to extended longevity.

Abbreviations: VEGF = vascular endothelial growth factor, HIF = hypoxia inducing factor, NO = nitric oxide, EPO = erythropoietin, RBC = red blood cells.

(Source: Zubieta-Calleja G, Zubieta-DeUrioste N. The oxygen transport triad in high-altitude pulmonary edema: a perspective from the high Andes. Int J Environ Res Public Health 2021;18[14]:7619. Creative Commons Attribution [CC BY] License,