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French zoologist, physiologist, and politician Paul Bert (1833-1866) self-experimenting with hypoxia

Bert is often called the father of high-altitude physiology. Bert provided the first clear statement that the harmful effects of high altitude are caused by the low partial pressure of oxygen in his book La pression barométrique (1878) [Barometric Pressure] (West JB, Richalet JP. Denis Jourdanet [1815-1892] and the early recognition of the role of hypoxia at high altitude. Am J Physiol Lung Cell Mol Physiol 2013;305[5]:L333-40). (Source: Regnard P La Cure d'Altitude. 2nd edition. Paris: Masson et cie, 1898. Figure edited by Dr. Douglas J Lanska.)