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Myofascial pain patterns of the upper and lower trapezius muscle (TP-2, TP-3)

Essential (solid red) and spillover (stippled red) referred pain from TP-3 (x) refers pain to the cervical paraspinal muscles, adjacent mastoid area, acromion, and an annoying deep ache and diffuse tenderness over the suprascapular region. This trigger point may also produce a steady burning pain referred downward along, and medial to, the vertebral border of the scapula. The TP-2 (x), refers pain to the occiput, overlapping with TP-1 behind the ear. (From Travell JG, Simons DG. Myofascial pain and dysfunction, trapezius muscle, the trigger point manual. Volume 1. Baltimore: Williams & Wilkins, 1983:185, with permission.)

Associated Disorders

  • Fibromyalgia
  • Greater occipital neuralgia
  • Piriformis syndrome
  • Postexercise muscle soreness
  • Thoracic outlet syndrome
  • Whiplash