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Myofascial pain patterns of the medial pterygoid muscle

Symptoms include (A) poorly circumscribed pain projecting to the back of the mouth and pharynx, and below and behind the TMJ and deep within the ear. (B) Difficult and painful swallowing and restricted jaw opening. (C) Essential (solid red) and spillover (stippled red) referred pain projects to the tongue, pharynx, and hard palate, but not to the teeth. (From: Travell JG, Simons DG. Myofascial pain and dysfunction, medial pterygoid muscle, the trigger point manual. Volume 1. Baltimore, Williams & Wilkins, 1983:250, with permission.)

Associated Disorders

  • Fibromyalgia
  • Greater occipital neuralgia
  • Piriformis syndrome
  • Postexercise muscle soreness
  • Thoracic outlet syndrome
  • Whiplash