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Chronic papilledema in the left eye with highly refractile, bright yellow bodies called pseudodrusen. (Contributed by Dr. Janet Rucker.)
Neuropharmacology & Neurotherapeutics
Jul. 21, 2021
Stroke & Vascular Disorders
Clinical features of basal ganglia hemorrhage include focal neurologic signs, headache, nausea, vomiting, decreased level of consciousness, and elevated blood pressure. Small hemorrhages may resemble lacunar infarctions, whereas large ones may present as coma, with neurologic deficits depending on the location, size, and expansion of the hematoma. It is one of the most severe types of stroke.
Aug. 27, 2021
Nov. 02, 2020
Multiple sclerosis is caused by immune attack against brain cells, with damage from demyelination and destruction of oligodendroglia, along with damage to axons and neurons. Cortical disruption affects cognition and multiple central nervous system functions. MS differs from other autoimmune diseases in that there is no proven target antigen.
Jul. 18, 2017
Neuroborreliosis is associated with cranial neuropathy most often in the facial nerve, radiculopathy, and lymphocytic meningitis. Lyme disease affects the central or peripheral nervous system in up to 10% to 15% of patients.
May. 17, 2021
Epilepsy & Seizures
Inhibitory motor seizures are ictal motor epileptic events of central paresis usually unilateral mono- or hemiparesis while consciousness is intact.
Apr. 26, 2021
Neuro-Ophthalmology & Neuro-Otology
Vestibular migraine presents with spontaneous or positional vertigo, head motion–induced vertigo, and visual vertigo, often without headache but typically in patients with a history of migraine. The pathophysiology may involve interaction between the trigeminal and vestibular systems. Antiemetics, migraine prophylaxis, and lifetyle changes are key to treatment.
Jun. 25, 2021
Metabolic encephalopathy involves global cerebral dysfunction, with presentations ranging from mild executive dysfunction to deep coma. Delirium is often the initial phase of impairment of consciousness, with impairment of attention, fluctuations in alertness, clouding of consciousness, disturbances in the wake-sleep cycle, and sometimes agitation and restlessness. Selective attention and the ability to process information are the cognitive domains primarily affected.
Jan. 31, 2021