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Jul. 20, 2021
Stroke & Vascular Disorders
Cerebral artery dissection is the most common cause of stroke in young adults. The most common clinical features of extracranial carotid dissection include ipsilateral headache or neck pain, Horner syndrome, and cerebral or retinal ischemia. An estimated 50% of cases develop stroke and 30% present with transient ischemic attack from hemodynamic compromise of the distal vasculature due to luminal narrowing, or by distal embolism due to thrombotic fragments that communicate with the lumen of the dissected vessel.
Apr. 05, 2020
Epilepsy & Seizures
Jun. 15, 2021
General Child Neurology
Hypotonia is reduced tension or resistance of passive range of motion and can occur with varying degrees of weakness. Central hypotonia is more likely to be noted axially with normal strength and hyperactive to normal deep tendon reflexes. Other clinical signs will vary by specific etiology. Examples include dysmorphic features associated with specific genetic disorders or multiorgan involvement in many metabolic disorders.
Aug. 24, 2020
Neuropharmacology & Neurotherapeutics
Neurotrophic factors play an important role in the survival and maintenance of neurons. There are considerable experimental data on various neurotrophic factors in relation to peripheral neuropathies, which forms the basis of therapeutic interventions. There is some evidence of efficacy of neurotrophic factors in diabetic neuropathy in clinical trials and in anticancer agent-induced peripheral neuropathy, but no further clinical trials in are progress.
Aug. 31, 2021
Hereditary ataxias are characterized by degeneration of the cerebellum and spinal cord. Friedreich ataxia (FRDA), caused by a GAA trinucleotide (triplet) repeat expansion mutation, is the most common nondominant form. A childhood onset spinocerebellar ataxia (SCA), FRDA is associated with scoliosis, cardiomyopathy, and absent knee and ankle jerks.
Apr. 16, 2021
Oct. 29, 2020
Behavioral & Cognitive Disorders
Acalculia refers to impairments in mathematical abilities in patients with brain damage. It is most often caused by a stroke, tumor, or trauma and is usually present in dementia. A major distinction can be established between primary (anarithmetia) and secondary (aphasic acalculia, alexic acalculia, agraphic acalculia, frontal acalculia, and spatial acalculia) acalculia.
Jan. 17, 2018