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Representation of glucose and lactate fluxes through the blood-brain barrier

Glucose transporters (GLUT): GLUT1 (green) is expressed in endothelial cells (part of the blood-brain barrier) and in the glial cell membrane; GLUT3 (yellow) is expressed in the neuron membrane. Monocarboxylate transporter family (MCT; blue): different isoforms (MCT1, MCT2, MCT4) are expressed in endothelial cells, neurons, astrocytes, and oligodendrocytes. (Source: Vulturar R, Chis A, Pintilie S, et al. One molecule for mental nourishment and more: glucose transporter type 1-biology and deficiency syndrome. Biomedicines 2022;10[6]:1249. Creative Commons Attribution License [CC BY], Figure edited by Dr. Douglas J Lanska.)