Central sleep apnea due to high-altitude periodic breathing
Jan. 17, 2023
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When there is steno-occlusive disease of the innominate (brachiovcephalic) artery or the proximal subclavian artery, the vertebral artery usually serves as the dominant collateral supply to the arm, but various other collaterals are available as necessary. Shown are the vertebral artery, the thyrocervical trunk (including various branches: thyroid, posterior scaplular, and suprascapular arteries), internal mammary (internal thoracic) artery, and intercostal anastomoses. (Contributed by Dr. Douglas Lanska. Source: Owen E. A Manual of Anatomy for Senior Students. London and New York: Longmans, Green, and Co., 1890.)