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Subclavian artery branches and anastomoses (2)

When there is steno-occlusive disease of the innominate (brachiocephalic) artery or the proximal subclavian artery, the vertebral artery usually serves as the dominant collateral supply to the arm, but various other collaterals are available as necessary. (Contributed by Dr. Douglas Lanska. Source: Morris H. Human Anatomy: A Complete Systematic Treatise by Various Authors: Including a Special Section on Surgical and Topographical Anatomy. Philadelphia: P. Blakiston, So & Co., 1893.)