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Subclavian artery: relation to vertebrobasilar system

Shown are the aortic arch and great vessels, along with the vertebrobasilar system. In particular, this figure emphasizes the vertebral loop. (Contributed and modified by Dr. Douglas Lanska. Greatly modified to show key elements, from a figure in: Owen E. A Manual of Anatomy for Senior Students. London and New York: Longmans, Green, and Co., 1890.)