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Spinal cord after laminectomy and opening of dura in superficial siderosis

Dorsolateral view of spinal cord after laminectomy and opening of dura--rotated up to show the ventral dural defect. Legend: A. branch of anterior spinal artery; B. rostral and caudal margins of ventral dural defect with anterior pseudomeningocoele (*) in the depths; C. xanthochromia on spinal cord; D. dentate ligament divided; E. Adhesions to the dural defect, the probable source of chronic subarachnoid hemorrhage. (Source: Halmagyi GM, Parker GD, Chen L, et al. Progressive loss of hearing and balance in superficial siderosis due to occult spinal dural defects. Eur Arch Otorhinolaryngol 2023;280[2]:633-41. Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International [CC BY 4.0] license,

Associated Disorders

  • Ataxia
  • Peripheral vestibular disorders
  • Sensorineural hearing loss
  • Subarachnoid hemorrhage