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Oct. 03, 2020
In this article, the author details the clinical manifestations resulting from organophosphate poisoning. Although there has been great concern about
May. 30, 2021
Behavioral & Cognitive Disorders
Foix-Chavany-Marie syndrome is a rare cortical form of supranuclear (pseudobulbar) palsy caused by bilateral anterior opercular lesions; in this syndrome there is an “automatic-voluntary dissociation” of motor function of lower cranial nerves. Manifestations include volitional paralysis of masticatory, facial, pharyngeal, and lingual muscles innervated by cranial nerves V, VII, IX, X, and XII, with preserved autonomic and emotional innervation of these muscles. There are 5 predominant clinical groups of Foix-Chavany-Marie syndrome.
Oct. 21, 2020
Sleep paralysis is an REM sleep parasomnia characterized by an inability to perform voluntary movements associated with marked anxiety that occurs either at sleep onset (hypnagogic form) or on awakening (hypnopompic form). Attacks last a few minutes, do not involve respiratory and ocular muscles, are fully reversible, and often are accompanied by terrifying hallucinatory phenomena. Sleep paralysis is frequently associated with narcolepsy, but may be familial.
May. 24, 2021
Childhood Degenerative & Metabolic Disorders
Refsum disease is a rare, autosomal recessive disorder characterized clinically by retinitis pigmentosa, peripheral polyneuropathy, and cerebellar ataxia
Dec. 14, 2018
Asymptomatic hyperCKemia indicates a finding of persistent and abnormally high serum levels of creatine kinase (CK) in an asymptomatic person, whether or not the etiology has been found. An increased serum CK level is taken to mean that the integrity of the skeletal muscle membrane has been affected; an increased serum CK level is also a hallmark of muscle disease, either hereditary or acquired. Statin use is probably the most common cause of asymptomatic hyperCKemia.
May. 31, 2021
Brain injury continues to be a leading cause of mortality and morbidity in patients resuscitated after cardiac arrest. Movement disorders, such as myoclonic jerks and cerebellar ataxia, and delirium may also follow episodes of cardiac arrest. In extreme cases, patients suffer widespread destruction of the cerebral cortex and progress to either a persistent vegetative state or death from neurologic complications.
Jun. 09, 2021
Neurodegeneration with brain iron accumulation (NBIA) is a group of rare, genetic neurologic disorders characterized by abnormal accumulation of iron in the basal ganglia. Common features of NBIA include the following: (1) occurrence at a young age, generally after earliest childhood; (2) a motor disorder, mainly of extrapyramidal type, characterized by dystonic postures, muscular rigidity, involuntary movements of choreoathetoid or tremulous type, but with findings suggesting corticospinal tract dysfunction as well; (3) mental changes indicative of dementia; and (4) a relentless, progressive course extending over several years, leading to death in early adulthood.
Aug. 13, 2021