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Gamma-glutamyl cycle illustrating the amino acid-shuttling function of the cycle. (Contributed by Dr. Douglas Lanska.)
Nov. 30, 2020
Autoreactive antibodies against central or peripheral nervous system antigens may be useful for the diagnosis of several neurologic diseases. In paraneoplastic neurologic disorders, their detection can also help identify an associated cancer at a stage before it is clinically overt, potentially leading to early successful therapy. The sensitivity and specificity and the reliability of the commercially used techniques is important to evaluate in order to avoid useless tests.
Jan. 30, 2017
Opsoclonus myoclonus syndrome is a neurologic syndrome characterized by the presence of opsoclonus and frequently diffuse or focal myoclonus, truncal ataxia, encephalopathy, and brainstem or other cerebellar manifestations. The disorder is most frequently autoimmune, parainfectious, and paraneoplastic in both adults and children but has also been seen to occur in metabolic and lesional brain disorders, such as tumors or stroke.
Oct. 14, 2021
Akathisia is the abnormal state of excessive restlessness. It fundamentally has 2 components: (1) a sensory component, which includes a sensation of inner restlessness, an urge to move, and dysphoria and (2) a motor component, manifested as movements that result from the sensation. Akathisia is a complication of all atypical antipsychotics.
May. 28, 2021
Neuropharmacology & Neurotherapeutics
Initial presentation of drug-induced aseptic meningitis includes headache, neck stiffness, and fever, along with elevated CSF proteins and negative CSF culture results. Diagnosis depends on establishing causal relation to a drug. Association is most frequent with nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs and drugs introduced directly into the CSF.
Sep. 18, 2021
Mar. 18, 2021
Neuro-Ophthalmology & Neuro-Otology
Postural orthostatic tachycardia syndrome (POTS) is an often-disabling syndrome of symptomatic orthostatic tachycardia in the absence of orthostatic hypotension. POTS has been associated with a wide variety of conditions, including diabetes, some autoimmune disorders, infections, trauma, surgery, stress, mastocytosis, and the hypermobility type of Ehlers-Danlos syndrome. Palpitations, dizziness, and other symptoms of POTS occur mainly when standing upright and are typically relieved by sitting or lying flat.
Sep. 11, 2021
Patients with X-linked Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease develop a progressive distal weakness and atrophy that results from length-dependent axonal loss, which may progress to the point where assistive devices are required for ambulation. Weakness, atrophy, and sensory loss also develop in the hands, particularly in thenar muscles. Men are more affected than women; women are variably affected. It is caused by mutations in GJB1, the gene that encodes connexin32.
May. 30, 2021