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Retina of a monkey treated with domoic acid, showing cell loss and necrosis

Retina of a monkey (M. fascicularis, the crab-eating macaque) treated with domoic acid. Photographs show cross-sections of the retina stained with hematoxylin and eosin. Cell loss and necrosis are present in the inner nuclear layer (INL), ganglion cell layer (GCL) and to a lesser extent in the outer nuclear layer (ONL). Vacuoles are easily identified in the photoreceptor cell layer (Ph) cell layer, particularly the cones (*) and in the outer plexiform layer (OPL). Cones and rods in the photoreceptor cell layer (Ph) layer are identified (arrows). There is also marked loss of cell bodies in the ganglion cell layer (GCL). From external to internal: the photoreceptor cell layer (Ph); the outer nuclear layer (ONL); the outer plexiform layer (OPL); inner nuclear layer (INL); inner plexiform layer (IPL); ganglion cell layer (GCL). Objective x40. (Source: Pulido 2008. Creative Commons Attribution license. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0.)