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This detailed diagram depicts the various stages in the life cycle of the tapeworm, Diphyllobothrium latum. (Source: Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Public domain.)
General Child Neurology
Jan. 18, 2021
Cephaloceles are typically herniations of brain tissue with meninges (encephalocele) or meninges only (cranial meningocele) through a congenital skull defect, and they are classified among “neural tube defects.” They are categorized according to the site of the skull defect. Most cephaloceles and associated malformations are treated by surgery. Prognosis depends on the site, content of the sac, operability, hydrocephalus, and other associated malformations.
Oct. 21, 2020
Varicella-zoster virus (VZV) central nervous system infection can have various presentations, including encephalitis, meningitis, cranial neuropathies, vasculopathy, and myelitis. The clinical manifestations of VZV infections can be divided into primary varicella zoster infection (chickenpox) and reactivated VZV infection (dermatomal shingles or disseminated herpes zoster). VZV is a neurotropic human herpesvirus, and the cause of neurologic complications has been postulated as either direct viral invasion through retrograde infection of neurons or immune-mediated mechanisms.
Jul. 12, 2020
Stroke & Vascular Disorders
Since their introduction, hormonal contraceptives have been associated with an increased risk of stroke. Oral contraceptives may increase the risk of ischemic stroke, although the absolute risk remains very small. Oral contraceptives do not seem to increase the risk of hemorrhagic stroke in the general population. However, they should not be offered to women with migraine with aura.
Feb. 12, 2019
Familial dysautonomia is an autosomal recessive hereditary sensory and autonomic neuropathy (HSAN) disorder characterized by both sensory and autonomic dysfunction, resulting in decreased pain and temperature perception as well as pervasive manifestations of autonomic dysregulation. Four unique features associated with this particular HSAN type are absence of overflow emotional tearing, afferent baroreflex failure, hyperadrenergic vomiting crises, and optic neuropathy.
Feb. 17, 2021
Episodes of periodic paralysis typically involve generalized muscle weakness with hypotonia and areflexia but spare bulbar and respiratory muscles and cognition. During attacks, affected muscles are in a state of sustained depolarization and are electrically inexcitable. Attacks may last minutes, hours, or even days. Episodes are often precipitated by specific triggers (behavior/diet) or are associated with abnormal serum potassium levels.
Dec. 05, 2019
Epilepsy & Seizures
Intermittent explosive disorder, as described in the DSM-5 (American Psychiatric Association 2013), represents the categorical expression of recurrent,
Mar. 28, 2018
Neuropharmacology & Neurotherapeutics
Mar. 13, 2021