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(Contributed by Dr. Rosa Tang.)
Aug. 05, 2020
Vitamin D (the “sunshine vitamin”) status is associated with the incidence and prevalence of a variety of neuromuscular and neurologic disorders, including osteomalacic myopathy and multiple sclerosis. Vitamin D insufficiency/deficiency is associated with the following: (1) reduced sunlight exposure and intensity; (2) malabsorption or protein-wasting syndromes; (3) enzyme-inducing antiepileptic medications; (4) disorders associated with higher vitamin D metabolism; and (5) mutations in the genes involved in vitamin D synthesis and breakdown.
Oct. 21, 2020
Sep. 12, 2021
Epilepsy & Seizures
Epilepsy with progressive mental retardation (Northern epilepsy syndrome) is a subtype 8 of neuronal ceroid lipofuscinosis (CLN8 disease) described in
May. 31, 2021
Brainstem gliomas are a very heterogeneous group of tumors, but are often quite aggressive and difficult to treat, with relatively short survival times. Surgical resection of brainstem gliomas can be performed in selective focal tumors. For more diffuse tumors, resection is impossible, and a biopsy is preferred. In many cases of diffuse pontine tumors, MRI can be diagnostic.
Jan. 24, 2019
Oct. 18, 2020
Stroke & Vascular Disorders
Intracranial atherosclerosis may be the most common cause of stroke worldwide. The neurologic syndromes associated with atherosclerotic occlusive disease of the major intracranial arteries are not unique. Other pathologies, such as cardioembolism or artery-to-artery embolism, that cause occlusions of these same arteries produce similar neurologic syndromes. Recurrent, stereotypical transient ischemic attacks should always suggest intrinsic large artery disease rather than cardioembolism.
Feb. 10, 2020
Behavioral & Cognitive Disorders
Olfactory deficits involving odor detection, identification, and discrimination are very common early in the course of Parkinson disease and dementia with Lewy bodies. Odor identification is also impaired in patients with REM sleep behavior disorder, a common and very early feature of Lewy body alpha-synucleinopathies. Less commonly, some degree of olfactory loss has also been reported in various other dementing disorders, including Alzheimer disease and frontotemporal dementia.